A nomad is a troubled neighbor or a useful partner? Nomads in the history of Russia
The history of Ancient Rus is the subject of numerousdisputes, because this is a great era, and our knowledge about it, alas, is very scarce. Despite the fact that the time distance separating us from this time is increasing, there are more opportunities for research among modern historians and archaeologists. Thanks to scientific developments and technical means, the excavated remains and artifacts are examined more thoroughly. Thus, scientists receive more information. For example, more recently historians have undertaken to study the foreign policy of Kievan Rus, as well as the role played by the ancient nomads. The facts that were revealed proved to be very interesting.
Polovtsy and Ancient Rus
What we know from the school program aboutrepresentatives of nomadic peoples, does not quite correspond to reality. A nomad is not only a representative of a half-savage tribe, seeking to plunder and kill. For example, the Polovtsians - nomadic tribe, which received its name from the yellow hair of its representatives - engaged in cattle breeding, as well as trade.
But they were also beautiful warriors andmanaged for several centuries to cause a lot of inconvenience to local princes, now and then carrying out raids on the lands of Kievan Rus. A few centuries later the Polovtsians began to lead a sedentary lifestyle. Perhaps this affected their mastery of the war. As a result later, the tribes became part of the Golden Horde, lost their identity. Very few exhibits belonging to the Polovtsi can be seen by visiting the museum of nomadic culture or by looking in private collections.
There is a hypothesis that the Pechenegs emerged asunion of ancient Türks and Sarmatians. There was this unification in the steppes of the Trans-Volga region. Pecheneg-nomad is a representative of the nationality, who lived in a tribal system. Tribes were divided into two branches, each of which had 8 tribes, that is, about 40 genera. They were engaged mainly in cattle breeding and trade, roaming at first between the Urals and the Volga.
An interesting feature of this tribe isthe practice of leaving prisoners live as part of their clans, granting them the same rights as indigenous people. This is found a lot of evidence, which we can see if we visit the Museum of nomadic culture.
It is the countless raids of the Pechenegs on the KievRussia forced its rulers to begin large-scale construction of defensive structures. When in 1036 Prince Yaroslav the Wise inflicted a crushing defeat on the Pechenegs, the period of their disintegration began. This was facilitated by interaction with other nomadic tribes. Historians argue that finally Pechenegs settled in the territory of modern Hungary, mixed with local tribes.
In the present Southern Russia many centuries ago people lived, about the origin of which scientists are still puzzling. These are the Khazars. A beautiful rider, a skilled ranger andfearless warrior-nomad. This all says about him, Khazar. During the history of nomadic peoples who lived in the era of Ancient Rus, they possessed the largest territories. Their khanate extends from the land of the northerners to the northern part of the Caucasus. Further expansion of the Khazars was hampered by the strengthening of Kievan Rus.
Ulica, Vyatichi and others
Among all the variety of tribal peoplesAncient Russia studied and recognized as an official science is not so much. Unfortunately, most of the evidence remained unavailable to us. Some tribes did not try to seize the lands of Kievan Rus, but, on the contrary, they tried to get rid of its influence. For their independence, for example, they fought placards that inhabited the banks of the Dnieper near the Black Sea coast. "The Tale of Bygone Years" still mentions such tribes as Vyatichi, Drevlyane and Volhynians. The last two tribes are part of the Drevlyane group and lived in the basin of the Pripyat River.
Useful nomadic neighbors
A nomad is not always a dangerous neighbor whoat any opportunity strives to chop off a piece of territory or plunder the city, it is also a trading partner. Since the nomadic tribes moved to vast territories, they were more confronted with new goods, customs and then carried it to the inhabitants of sedentary regions. But the huge nomadic empires could significantly influence the course of life of Kievan Rus and other states.
Ancient Russia and the nomads are close tradecommunication, exchange of cultural traditions. Also significantly affected the nomadic tribes on the beliefs of the ancient Slavs of the pre-Christian period. Their influence on the settled areas was truly enormous, but one fact remains unchallenged, indicating that the only empire that stood firm against the onslaught of nomadic tribes was Kievan Rus. It not only survived, but also swallowed up many tribes. But thanks to this absorption, they were able to maintain their identity for a long time.