Composition of honey
We all know that honey is useful and helps us, recover from a cold in the winter season. But at the same time, few people know what exactly is contained in the composition of honey and how much it needs to be eaten per day by a person in order for our body to get all the most useful. Natural bee honey looks like a crystallized mass or a syrupy liquid, and it can be not only the yellow color that is our usual color, but also brown, brown or white color. The aroma may also differ or even honey may have no smell, it all depends on the area of collection and flowers. And we will describe all these subtleties in more detail, considering the chemical composition of honey.
Sugar contained in honey
- Glucose - it is also called grape sugar - is 31 - 38%. The peculiarity is that this type of sugar is faster than the others crystallizes.
- Honey collected from acacia flowers - 35.98%
- Buckwheat honey - 36.75%
- White honey - 36.05%
- Cotton honey - 36.1%
- Honey collected from the flowers of acacia - 40.35%
- Buckwheat Honey - 40.29%
- White honey - 39.27%
- Cotton Honey - 39.40%
- Fructose - fruit sugar - is 38 - 43%.And it crystallizes poorly in contrast to the above presented species.
- Sugar - beet, cane sugar - is 0-2%. Such a small amount of it in the composition of honey is explained by the fact that it quickly splits into fructose and glucose under the action of the enzyme invertase. But at the same time, in fresh honey, its amount can be 6%, but further its splitting is inevitable and takes an important role in the process of making high-quality honey.
Dextrins are products of incomplete decomposition of starch. They are 1 - 4%, although there are also such cases that their number reaches 0.5 - 12.9%. As for the protein substances, which are vegetable in one half and animals in the other. Since some of them fall from the flowers, the second part with the saliva of a bee. And they make up 0.1 - 1.5%.
Their active acidity is 3.26 - 4.36, which suggests that the acid reaction is always present in the composition of honey.
The content of moral substances that are included in the chemical composition of honey is 0.006 - 0.830%.
- Invertase - comes from the pharyngeal glands of bees
- Diastasis - the number ranges from 1 -2 to 30 - 50. This number depends on many factors:
- Feature of honey plants
- Weather at the time of collection
- Climatic and soil conditions for plant germination
- Feature of bees
- Maturity of rolled honey
- Processing method
- Shelf life
Sanitary examination rules say that the diastatic number should be higher than 18. Therefore, if the diastatic number of honey is below 10, then it is considered falsified, but if 10-17.9 it is considered to be of poor quality. Recently, experts have begun to recheck such information, as they now take into account many other factors affecting the quality of honey and perhaps soon a diastatic number, which should be normal to change. But for now, the figures remain the same. Catalase - due to a chemical reaction, forms gluconic acid.
Admixture of pollen grains
Pollen grains, which fall into nectar from the anthers of a flower, speak about the origin of honey, with the pollen analysis of honey, which is important considering the above listed components of honey.
As for the processing of honey, the shoulder is engaged in this - the receiver, namely, she releases a drop of nectar from the honey goiter to the proboscis, and then swallows it back. She performs a similar operation up to 200 times. This process is very important, since in this way various vitamins, enzymes, biological, bactericidal active substances enter the honey and at this stage, sucrose is actually processed into sucrose and glucose. All this allows to reach 1.48 - 1.51 g / cm3 density of honey. This is how many countries check the naturalness and, accordingly, the quality of honey, for example, in Australia, the density of honey should be 1.45 g / cm3, in New Zealand - 1.475 g / cm3, and in Canada - 1.47 g / cm3. If the density is less than these indicators, then it is considered falsified and is not allowed for sale.
Also checked bactericidal properties, which are part of the honey. To do this, immerse a piece of meat in honey and see how long it can be preserved. If honey is mature and has a high density, then the meat can be stored for up to several years. It is important for experts to find out that honey is stored for one or two months.It is also important that if you heat the honey to 50 ° C, the bactericidal properties will decrease significantly, and if you heat it to 70 ° C, it will completely disappear. Therefore, it is not advised to constantly warm the honey, because with this, various substances and vitamins are lost.
The smell, color and taste of honey
It all depends on what area and from which flowers honey was collected. So, honey can be with a pleasant or, on the contrary, unpleasant smell and taste, or even be without them. For example, honey with the most pleasant smell and taste is collected in Ukraine, Russia, Moldova, as well as in Bashkiria. If honey is collected in the northwestern zone, then it has a pleasant, but weak smell or does not have it at all, as for the taste, it is soft.
The color depends on the flowers from which honey was collected, it can be:
- Brown - it is harvested from buckwheat
- Dark amber from heather
- Golden yellow or white - meadow and other flowers
Useful properties of honey
We also note that honey not only saves from cold, but also helps people who have problems with blood pressure. For example, if blood pressure is high, then you need to eat honey on an empty stomach, that is, on an empty stomach, and then it will go down.And with constant consumption of this product does normalize blood pressure.
So, based on the above information, we see that there are many substances in the composition of honey that have a positive effect on the human body. The first is of course the vitamins - C, H, PP, B1, B2, B3, B6, in which a person is in great need and it is they who strengthen the immunity of both an adult and a child. Also biological substances:
- Carbohydrates - 70-80%
- Water - 20%
- Proteins - 0.3 - 0.4%
- Amino Acids
- Inorganic acid
- Mineral substances, etc.
Therefore, using 100 g of honey per day, a person, thereby, provides for a daily requirement: for energy by 10%, in zinc and copper - by 4%, in cobalt - by 25%, in manganese and iron - by 6.6%.
And if we take into account that, in general, at least 30-37 elements are part of honey, then you can only imagine what benefit, its use, brings to the body of an adult. But do not forget that unripe honey is also siphoned off as often and trying to increase its density using room temperature, this honey is of poor quality and contains the smaller part of all the useful properties of honey. Therefore, be extremely careful when acquiring this or that honey, not knowing about the process of its manufacture.After all, as you understand, natural, high-quality honey is not made in one month, it is a very complex and lengthy process.
Now you know the composition of honey and how to choose it. Use it daily and then you will not have any health problems!