Design of an internal combustion engine: the principle of operation
Practically on all modern cars inThe role of the power device is used by the internal combustion engine. Reduced - ICE. There are also electric cars, but in this article we will consider the construction of an internal combustion engine.
What is the basis of the ICE work? Under the action of gas pressure, the piston moves in the cylinder. Gases are formed in the combustion process, dare the fuel, which we will henceforth call the working mixture. It should be taken into account that this does not burn the fuel itself, but its fumes mixed with air. This is the working mixture for ICE. If it is set on fire, then it, multiplying repeatedly in volume, will burn. In a confined space, it will create pressure by moving the piston. The design of the internal combustion engine is such that only about ten liters of fuel are used, only two. The rest is wasted. That is, the efficiency is about twenty percent.
ICE, which are used on passenger cars,consist of a gas distribution and crank mechanism, as well as from ignition, power, cooling, exhaust, lubrication. ICE consists of the following parts: cylinders, cylinder head (reduced cylinder head), pistons, piston pins and rings, connecting rods, crankshaft, flywheel, distributor cam with cams, spark plugs and valves.
The device of the internal combustion engine
It is best to consider the principle of the ICEexample of a gasoline single-cylinder engine. This ICE consists of a cylinder having a mirror internal surface. To it the head is fastened. In the cylinder is a piston having a cylindrical shape. It has grooves on it. They are equipped with piston rings, which are necessary to ensure the tightness of space. In addition, they do not allow oil leakage into the space above the piston. That is, these rings are seals and come in two types: oil-removable and compression.
Almost all machines of budget and secondaryclass four-cylinder engines. However, there is an internal combustion engine and a larger volume. The larger the engine, the more powerful and consumes more fuel. As a rule, automobile ICEs operate on a four-cycle cycle. It is made for four piston strokes or for two turns of the crank shaft. That is, the principle of operation of the four-stroke engine is in the following measures: intake, compression, expansion and release.
Inlet stroke: through the inlet open valve cylinder ICE is gradually filled with a combustible mixture until the further movement of the piston down will be impossible. For the first measure, the crankshaft rotates half a turn.
Compression rate: After the combustible mixture is mixed in the valve with the remains of gases and the inlet valve is closed, it becomes combustible. The piston starts to move upward and presses the mixture working towards the cylinder head.
Work stroke: the heat energy is converted into a mechanical one. The pressure from the gases that expand is transferred to the piston. For this reason, it starts its downward movement. Both valves are closed. Sharply drops the pressure in the cylinder, the piston moves downward, the crankshaft begins to rotate through the connecting rod. The third measure is the most important. All the rest are auxiliary.
Release cycle: the exhaust valve is open, the inlet valve is closed. The piston pushes out the remains of the exhaust gases, which through the exhaust system of the exhausted gases escape into the atmosphere.
What are the types of internal combustion engines
At the moment there are diesel,gasoline, gas-diesel, gas and rotary-piston engines. Also, they can be divided according to the type of fuel consumed, the location and number of cylinders, and the method of creating the working mixture. The design of the internal combustion engine in obsolete vehicles gives them a number of disadvantages: increased noise, increased overall dimensions and weight.