How and where did Paranja appear?
How and where did Paranja appear?
- No this is not a veil on his face, and even a wide robe with long false sleeves, he leans on his head and envelops the whole figure from top to toe. The face is covered with a net woven from horsehair. This grid is called in different ways: in Iran, the bowl or bowl. in Central Asia, chachvan, in Turkey, Peche. Actually, the Central Asian burqa, being of Persian linguistic roots, has many names: in Iran it is a veil, in Turkey, in Arabian countries, the hijab.
The exact date of the appearance of capes, including the burqa, in everyday costume can not be called. It was a long process with different
terms not only in different nations, but also in different localities.
- The paranja comes from the cult of Astarte in ancient Mesopotamia. In honor of the goddess of carnal love, all women without exception had to engage in prostitution once a year in the sacred forests surrounding the temples of the goddess. In order not to be recognized, women from high society took the habit of veiling themselves completely. And do not forget also that Mustafa Kemal, known as Ataturk, the first president of Turkey with 1923 for 1938, has found the right way to plug the fundamentalists of that time with the mouth. He put an end to the wearing of the veil, having issued a simple law with immediate effect, all Turkish women have the right to dress the way they want. Nevertheless, all prostitutes should wear a veil. The next day the burqas were not seen there any more. And this law is still in force in Turkey. When Judas saw her, he mistook her for a harlot, because her face was closed. (Gen. 38: 15)
- The exact date of the appearance of the capes, including the veil, in the everyday suit can not be named. It was a long process with different terms, not only among different peoples, but also in different localities.
The term Faraji, or in Uzbek pronunciation of paradji (Russian burqa), of Arabic origin, translated from Persian means dress. Faradji means a man's wide outerwear, mainly with long sleeves, and in the Constantinople Turks and women's clothing, worn when leaving the house. Mention of clothes in the form of a robe that closes the figure to the toes and has wide long sleeves, as well as decorated with embroidery and even precious stones, are found in sources of the 9th century. Faradji originated in Egypt, from where it spread to other eastern countries. In Central Asia under the Sheibanids (XVI century), the faraji-robe was the clothing of scientists. In India and Central Asia, under Babur and the Timurids, the faradji were the outerwear of scholars, government officials, and clergy. However, it is possible that the Arabic origin of the word burqa indicates only that the tradition of wearing a veil on the face was strictly observed with the arrival of the Arabs in Central Asia in the VIII century. More ancient headdresses, except for religious significance, were designed to protect the head and shoulders from the scorching sun.
The well-known Tajik writer of the Middle Ages Zaynaddin Mahmud Vasifi (1485-1551) in his memoirs Amazing events mention the faradji, both the dressing gown of men and women. In the XVI-XVIII centuries, residents of Istanbul began to wear similar clothing, which in Turkish pronunciation was called feredge. She, too, was a part of outerwear, but instead of chachvan — a grid covering her face — Turkish women wore a headscarf or white veil, which, although it covered her face, left a slit for the eyes. In winter, the ferret saddle and dervishes wore.
In the XVI century, the term Faraji is mentioned in written sources in the meaning of a robe, in its specific, ceremonial, output version. And the first written mention of the custom of leaving the house to throw a robe on his head refers to the XVIII century and belongs to the lieutenant I. Gladyshev and the surveyor DV Muraviev, who in 1740-1741 carried out a trip from Orsk to Khiva and back. They reported that the Uzbeks of the Amu-Darya delta, leaving the house, threw a chapen (robe) on their heads. In his notes, the Russian officer F. Efremov, who visited the city in Bukhara and Khiva in the second half of the 18th century, writes: "Women wear dresses in excess of the dress by the Faraji, that is, a women's robe, from which the sleeves of head to toe are very narrow, sewn together and put back, the length is below the caviar .. On the face they put hair nets, they are called chashman. " Another description was left by Philip Nazarov, who was in Tashkent at 1813-1814. According to him, the women he saw in the bazaar were under the veil. They put on their bathrobes and put a hair net on the face, which is sewn to the robe.
- Muslims do not drink alcohol, but the "scary" girls also need to attach, again, the feast does not hurt! So they came up with the rule: well, Petruha did not hint! "Open your face, Gulchatay"!
- Here you will find the most detailed answer to the question.
- The question is very interesting, and I will immediately say an exact answer is not possible! Internet is a great trust, but a lot of facts of the Women's Cape over 2000 years. The logic gives us ourselves to try to figure out more precisely! Remember the image of St. Mary, the church inscriptions, drawings, rock carvings of antiquity. More precisely, it can be said that the Prophet Muhammad sewing ginshins against violence and debauchery. At that time there was a wide distribution of booze and lawlessness .. He pointed out that ginshin should be in a separate part of the community, rather, from that time the veil became already official for
Muslim women. I personally think, and today it is relevant, although the female
Beauty for me is a striking factor, or rather I can not stand in front of the beautiful! Do not judge, it's true!
- It is believed that the word "paranja" comes from the Persian word "Faraji". That is, historians suggest that there was such a Faradji bathrobe, once worn in Egypt, and from there it spread to the east, to the eastern countries. The Central Asian burqa, however, has a more ancient prototype.
Even in the era of antiquity (V century BC - V century AD) according to archaeological data (that is, if you just look at the garments on the terracotta figurines of the goddess Anahit), no doubt: women wore headgear in the form of dressing gowns with or without arms. In the era of the feudal Middle Ages, these capes and transformed into this type of clothing. According to the oldest written sources and fine book miniatures, in Central Asia, the Faradji robe existed as the outer clothing not only of women, but also of scholars, clergy, and government officials. It was a long, to the toe, garment made of silk, linen or cloth with very long sleeves, up to the knees, and also with a large central clasp. Often it was adorned with thick embroidery and considerable sewn jewels. The men wore this robe, usually having passed both hands (however, it happened that only one hand), sutured on the shoulders. For ease of use on the sleeves near the shoulders sections were made, through which, if necessary, and thrust his hands. Women during this period, although they had quite a variety of clothes, but did not forget about exactly the same dressing gowns, also often wearing them on the head or on their shoulders. Such clothes were the most different in length with a great variety of fasteners and with sleeves from short (almost to under the armpits) and to long (even below the knees). It was made of a rectangular piece of cloth. Wearing gowns over the head gradually led to the fact that the sleeves lost their function, and, as they interfered with walking, they were thrown back and fastened down. Only in the head capes used for riding, for a very long time, a vertical incision was made so that the hands could hold the bridle and the reins. But for those who ceased to be a rider, such a cut lost its function. And then, without violating the tradition, it was replaced with a decor: the cut was not done, but in the place reserved for it there was embroidery, sewing braid, brushes, fringe was made. In the XVIII-th - XIX-th centuries the form of Faraji has changed significantly. If earlier it was made from soft tissues and, naturally, the shape of the robe was close to the contours of the human figure, now it began to be sewn from dense fabrics. The form became broad, rigid, completely hiding the outline of a living person. Such a robe in the form of a head hard cloak is gradually becoming an indispensable part of women's clothing and acquires a sound name known to us - the "veil" from the distorted - "Faraji".
The merger of the two robes, the described robe and the transparent covering for the face, occurred gradually. The emergence of chachvan (also from the distorted phrase - "chasm gangs" - "eye patch"), that is, the horsehair netting covering the face, was not originally associated with the burqa. nomadic Arab clothing and Mongolian costumes. In Mongolia, these were special facial capes of transparent, veil-like fabric covering only the upper part of the face; among the Arabs, it was a veil, hiding the face completely, leaving only his eyes open. Wearing this kind of capes was always determined by climatic conditions, as frequent sand and dust storms, a bright burning sun demanded a “concealment” of the face. Horsehair chachwan entered
- The burqa was not widespread among all peoples and ethnic groups of Central Asia. Kazakhs, Kirghiz, Turkmen, Karakalpaks and mountain, including Pripamir, Tajiks custom of women's seclusion, and, consequently, special clothes to cover the face of the woman was not. In addition, this custom fully existed only in towns and closely connected villages. In remote rural areas and those groups that respected the habit of seclusion, it was more formal. That is, the veil has spread in the most Islamized areas - in cities and agricultural areas. In rural areas only women from well-to-do families had a veil and used it only in exceptional cases. Women, leaving the house, just threw a robe over their heads.
Women from nomadic tribes preferred more practical headdresses. In a number of areas, women tied their heads with cloth or handkerchiefs, the ends of which went down to the neck and back, protecting them from the sun and wind, and if necessary they could cover part of the face. These headdresses were differently called Muslims, but traditionally - turban or turban.
The paranja is a very long and wide robe with narrow, in all its length, false sleeves, a comb, thrown to the back and fastened with ribbons. This robe is thrown over the head over a scarf or skullcap - depending on the age (figure 1). The woman's face covers a different length of a rectangular grid of black horse hair chashmbband (in Tajik - face curtain), or chachvan, chashman, chimmet, as it is called in different localities. Chachvan is rather dense, so that a woman can hide her face, but at the same time he allows her to see the world around her. The paranja is thrown over the chachvana, the upper ends of which are fastened together, forming a cap, and in this form he is put on the headdress. Very often in conversations you can hear that Muslim women cover their face with a veil - this is not entirely accurate. Paranja hides the figure of a woman, and chachvan (chashmbband) - a person. The inaccuracy of this expression stems from the fact that people unfamiliar with the subtleties of the Central Asian costume perceive the veil and chachvan as a single whole, and sometimes even implying only the net covering the Chachvan face under the veil.
At first glance, the veil makes a very peculiar impression, it seems completely different from all other types of Central Asian clothing. However, a detailed analysis of her cut makes sure that it is essentially the same as the cut of a usual robe: a straight piece of fabric forms the front and back, sewn to it on the shoulder line, sidewalls underneath. The sleeves, as well as on all types of Central Asian tunic-like clothing, consist of transverse pieces of fabric sewn along the hem (ill. 2,7). Since they were not used while wearing, but cast over their backs, they were made very long and narrow.
The crotch, which is unnecessary in the veil, which prevented from splitting the place of sewing sleeves and sides when using sleeves for their intended purpose, was absent on the veil. This is the only element of cut that was not here. The collar on the burqa was an obligatory accessory, it had the same cut as on the robe. Also obligatory was the lining, which underneath, on the floors and under, went into elegant, from the motley cloth of the regiment.
The relationship of a burqa with a man’s rather than with a woman’s robe is revealed through the many features of its cut and design. This is evidenced not only by the presence of a collar at the burqa, but also by trimming its sides with a braid (women's dressing gown was edged only with black edging). A small piece of braid was sewn under the sleeves of a man’s robe and burqa, which spoke of the hole that once existed here, as they trimmed the edges with braid to prevent them from tearing. In men's robes, men pulled out their hands through such openings in order to perform a bath before a five-fold prayer, if they had to perform it outside the house. On women's halo
- The burqa appeared after the appearance of the Muslim religion Islam. A veil is a black cape that hides absolutely everything - even the eyes, the Hijab is when the face and hands are open, the Niqab - only the eyes are open.
Paul Smirnov to you a question - always think so narrowly? sometimes it's better to remain silent and you will appear to be a "wise man"!