The theory of strings is very complex and evenStrangely enough. Is it popular? Yes, it's popular. In scientific circles, it is said enough about it. There is an opinion that it will give us all the answers about the structure of the universe.
She has so many versions. It is possible that among them there is a universal theory, that is, one that will help to understand the essence of everything. Surprisingly, the fundamentals of all are hidden in several equations. More recently, string theory has merged with the concept of supersymmetry. The result was the theory of superstrings. It managed to unite many knowledge about the properties of the basic elements of that matter, from which our universe actually consists.
At the heart of the theory of supersymmetry liesthe concept, the essence of which lies in the fact that there are carrier particles and interacting particles. The latter are something like bricks of the universe, and carrier particles act as a kind of cement.
In the standard model, the bricks are quarks, and the carriers are gauge bosons. The quarks exchange each other with gauge bosons.
The string theory and supersymmetry theory are complex forunderstanding, but that picture of the universe, which they paint, is not so difficult to imagine. In microscopic dimensions, one can observe the transformation of matter into a series of field standing waves. These waves are very similar to those that are excited in the strings of any musical instruments. In strings of matter, for example, like a guitar, not only the fundamental tone can be excited, but also various harmonics or overtones. Each harmonic has its own energy state. The essence of the principle of relativity lies in the fact that mass and energy are equivalent. From this it follows that the higher the frequency of the harmonic wave vibrations of the strings, the greater and higher will be the energy, as well as the mass of the observed particle.
It is not so difficult to imagine a standing wave inguitar string, however, those standing waves that suggests string theory, to draw in the imagination is not at all easy. The bottom line is that oscillations occur in a space that has eleven dimensions at once. For us, of course, there is a habitual space in which measurements are only four. In the space of strings things are very different. Physicists can not really understand with superfluous measurements which are not observed at usual energies.
String theory also developed in theorymultidimensional membranes. What are multidimensional membranes? In principle, they differ from strings in that they have a flat form. Physicists joke: membranes and strings - it's like vermicelli and noodles.
All the information given above often becomescause of various disputes. In principle, the theory of physics is always something complex, incomprehensible to easy explanation, multi-level. There is always a lot of controversy.
Yes, many theories claim to be universal, that is, one that would open up the mystery of the universe and made it clear the essence of all associations of force interactions.
In general, it should be noted that the theory of stringsit is not insane. It still does not have a strict mathematical form. The reason for this is that the mathematical apparatus is simply not developed enough to achieve such a result. The theory of strings has existed for more than twenty years, but physicists still can not unite its contradictory beginnings. In addition, it should be taken into account that no laboratory experience has been proposed that could confirm its truth. Of course, all knowledge about it is still only theoretical. What are the forecasts? They are numerous - enough among them, both positive and negative.