The concept of the form of the state and its elements
When characterizing any state, it is alwaysdraws attention to what land areas it includes, the number and density of the population, the forms of organizational governance, the nature of the political regime, the level of economic development. The state is stronger the more stable its economy works, the closer the interaction between the government and the people, the higher the country's defense capability and the scientific and technical base put at the service of the economy.
The concept of state form includesa set of all its signs, which reflect both the order of formation and organization of state bodies, the territorial composition of the state, and those methods, the methods by which state power is exercised. In other words, this is political power, which in the country is the main one at the moment, the political regime that it has established. Therefore, it is from the form of state government that, to a large extent, the political life of society depends, as well as the efficiency of the institutions of state power.
It can be noted that the concept and elements of the formstates are associated with such insignificant at first glance factors as the natural and climatic conditions of the country, national, historical, religious identity, the level of public culture, etc. For example, the presence of large territories and the variegated ethnic composition of the population living on them have become prerequisites for a federative form board in modern Russia, which is called: the Russian Federation. Or America, where there are also vast land areas and great administrative independence, has become the United States.
In order for the concept of form of the state to become clearer, it is necessary to analyze more deeply the elements of its structure:
- first of all - the form of government. It is understood as the organization and work of the highest bodies of the state, their structure, sphere of actions and powers, ways of communication and work with the population and among themselves. The main forms are monarchical and republican. Under the monarchy, all government is concentrated in the hands of one person - the monarch, and this form of power is inherited ("The King is dead - long live the King!"). In turn, the monarchy is absolute, i.е. boundless, uncontrolled, and limited, constitutional. Under the republican form of government, power in the state is exercised by an organ elected by the people, and it rules on behalf of the people. It can be the power of the president, parliament or presidential-parliamentary, as well as parliamentary-presidential, i.e. mixed;
- state structure -territorial and political organization of power in the country. It determines the nature of the relationship between the center and the authorities on the ground. Here there are unitary forms, confederation, federation;
- in the concept of state form is included and socalled the political regime, i.e. state-legal methods, methods and means of manifestation of power. This is an authoritarian regime, close to it totalitarian and the opposite - democratic.
Consequently, the form of the state, the concept and its elements are the unity of the three main factors: structure, territory, political structure.
Land, density, quantity andcomposition of the population, state power - all these parameters are common for any country. That individual, which determines the actual face of the state, its essence, is expressed by the phrase "state form".
The concept of state form, thus, is:
- the order in which state authorities are formed;
- the structure of these bodies;
- peculiarity of territorial isolation of the population;
- relations between different bodies of state power;
- shades of relations between government and citizens;
- the exercise of political power.