Watermelons in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate. Cultivation of watermelons
Watermelon is an amazing berry with an excellent, meltingin the mouth cool sweet pulp, which everyone loves, from small to large. And so they have long been learned to grow successfully in the most difficult climatic latitudes of the Urals and Siberia, often bearing the label of risky farming zones.Watermelons in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate have already ceasedBe a curiosity and successfully mature. Experienced gardeners often emphasize the unpretentiousness of melons and gourds. Let's talk about the subtleties of greenhouse cultivation of striped-green berries in this article.
How to grow watermelons in a greenhouse
A special imprint on the greenhouse cultivation of watermelonimpose the characteristics of this culture. Watermelon - is originally a southern, light-loving plant, home to which are the hot sand of deserts. Naturally, heat and light may not be enough for him, therefore, greenhouses for cultivation of these melons should be installed in the most lighted places, where there are no shrubs, trees or structures casting a shadow. In northern regions with a noticeable lack of natural light, which affects the development of plants, additional artificial lighting is used: for a medium-sized greenhouse 6 * 3 * 2 m, four LB-40 lamps are sufficient. Plant watermelons on seedlings in April, otherwise the berries will not ripen.
With greenhouse cultivation, do not forget thatWatermelons do not tolerate increased (more than 60%) moisture, because the arid climate is their native element. Therefore, periodic airing of greenhouses is an indispensable condition for the comfortable growth of striped berries in temperate climatic zones. With the proper care of watermelons in a greenhouse in Siberia grow well, ripening in early autumn and not yielding to sugar content to their brethren with melons.
Choose a variety
Not every watermelon is suitable for hothousecultivation. Only early varieties of watermelons can fully ripen under such conditions. Ideal option would be the selection of a regionalized, ie adapted for regional climatic conditions, seed. Acquiring seeds should be guided by the date of their development. It is noticed that the most "fresh" seeds germinate faster and develop better. In addition, in the greenhouse space, large-fruited varieties do not have time to ripen. Smaller watermelons are fastened and poured. In a greenhouse polycarbonate successfully grows one and a half-two-kilogram fruits of proven varieties "flame", "ultrasound", "Siberian", "Cinderella", "gift to the north", etc. Today, many hybrids with a short vegetation period are put out. Cultivation of watermelons begins with seeding on seedlings.
How to plant watermelons correctly
The duration of the "seedling" period for melonscultures - 25-35 days. Based on this time, the date of planting seedlings on a permanent place in the greenhouse is calculated. It is important that the seedlings are at the stage of readiness, not overgrown or not too weak. Therefore, all stages of work need to be done competently. Seeding is usually performed in mid-April.
Soil composition for seedlings is as follows: garden soil, sand and humus in a ratio of 1/1/3 kg. In this mixture, add half a glass of wood ash and 10 g of potassium sulfate. Plant watermelons on seedlings in a common capacity is not worth it, since the stem and roots of shoots are very fragile, and the plant can not always be painlessly removed from the common box. A separate container will protect the seedling from stress and facilitate rooting.
Given that the watermelon is a fairly large crop, the pots for seedlings must be at least 10 cm in height and in diameter.
Before planting the seeds, rejection is carried out, removingunproductive (dried or spoiled). They are briefly placed in salted water (1 tsp / 0.3 liters) and, surfaced, ie, unfit for planting, are removed. Seeds, sinking to the bottom - a full seed. After rejection, they are rinsed, they are pickled in half an hour in a weak solution of manganese, and washed again. For better germination and protection against diseases, the seeds are treated with a biostimulator solution (for example, "Epin", "Zircon"), observing the concentration according to the instructions attached to the preparation.
Prepared seeds are planted in a substrate. To facilitate germination, the location of seeds "lying on its side" will help. They are buried at 2-2.5 cm, watered and covered with seedlings by a polyethylene or food film to create a comfortable microclimate. The temperature of the air in a room with a future seedling should not be below 22-25 ° C. After germination of shoots, the film from the containers is removed and the boxes are installed as close as possible to the window. Lack of illumination is compensated by an additional artificial source.
The seedlings' highlighting allows seedlings to not stretch and not weaken. There are some rules that should be observed when growing seedlings:
• containers with young plants are installed at a certain distance from each other, since the leaves of plants should not touch each other;
• 2 weeks after germination of seedlings seedlings are fed with complex fertilizer;
• ready for planting is a seedling with 3-5 true leaves.
Preparing the greenhouse
Watermelons in a polycarbonate greenhouse excellentlydevelop. This universal material has proved equally well for the cultivation of melons and nightshade cultures. Since watermelons have unlimited growth of shoots and are fastened on the trellis, they rise quite high, the main condition for the size of the greenhouse is the height, which should not be less than 2 meters. As they grow, the whips are fixed on the trellis. Fruits that reach the size of an apple are tied in separate nets, and they develop in a suspended state, without hurting the feeding shoot. Thus, one watermelon in a greenhouse in the suburbs brings several mature fruits from a single plant.
Prepare a greenhouse traditionally: in spring the soil and all frame elements are sprinkled with a solution of copper sulfate or a Bordeaux mixture, preventing the development of bacterial and fungal infections.
Before growing watermelons in a greenhouse, prepare the soil. Ideally, the necessary work should be carried out in the fall: repair the manure (20 kg / 1 m2), vegetable tops and cut grass. To loosen the soil, peat-humic preparations are needed, improving its structure. At 1 m2make a bucket of large river sand and 10 g of nitrophosphoric acid and double superphosphate.
Together with watermelons, one can grow other crops, for example, melons, nightshade, that is, preferring to grow in conditions of low humidity.
As part of the requirements put forward by watermelon in greenhouse cultivation - quality care, protection from recurrent frosts and mandatory restriction of the number of fruits in one bush.
Planting of seedlings
Prepared seedlings are planted in a greenhouse,if the soil temperature is not less than 14-15 ° C. Moreover, the apical point of growth in plants is not pinch. Since watermelons are large plants, it is not recommended to plant more than two crops per square meter.The algorithm for landing is as follows: the planting holes are generously watered, then the plant is carefully extracted from the container, placed in a well, and embedded above the soil level, so that a distinctive tubercle protruding from the water forms around the stem. Planting in unheated greenhouses at first cover with additional film material. Thus, watermelons in the greenhouse in the Urals or other temperate zones adapt more quickly and start growing.
Care of plantings
That the sugar content of watermelon was high, forGrowth requires a moist soil and dry warm air. The culture is watered rarely, but generously, while trying not to moisten the stem. Regular airing of the greenhouse is necessary to maintain optimum humidity. Comfortable air temperature during the day should be maintained in the area + 24-30 ° C, at night - + 18-20 ° C. At the threat of cooling over plants establish a temporary framework and cover plants.
Watermelons in polycarbonate greenhouses are more convenientto grow on a trellis, necessarily forming it. On the vertical twine, the central stem is allowed. Remove the 2 lower side shoots, because they are unproductive - female flowers appear on them too late to be able to ripen. The next 3-4 stems are fastened on the trellis on different sides of the main shoot and are closely watched: when the female flowers grow, pinch them 2-3 interstices higher. Shoots that produce male flowers to 6-7 knots are removed.
Normalization of the number of fruits on the plant
Since the fruits of watermelon are large, normalizethe number of ovaries will be. This procedure will accelerate the formation of the first berries and improve their taste. The optimal load is the presence of 4-5 fruits weighing 1-1.2 kg each on one plant.
During the season the soil is loosened 5-6 times. Good results are obtained by mulching with humus and top dressings from the Mullein infusion (1/10 L). 2-3 weeks before the end of the vegetation period, watering is stopped. At the same time, the growth processes slow down and the fruit sugar content increases.
The article gives an idea of how to properly plant watermelons, which agrotechnical techniques will help to grow a good harvest of this magnificent southern berry in the temperate latitudes of the country.