Wives of the Decembrists
Dimensional life of Russia overturned in 1825year, on December, 14th. On this day there was an uprising of the Decembrists. It was brutally suppressed, 579 participants were involved in the investigation. Five were sentenced to death, 120 people were exiled to Siberia for labor. After the end of the trial, all those sentenced were declared political criminals and officially dead.
"Political death" meant legalthe loss of absolutely all the rights of a citizen of the country. Wives of the Decembrists had to decide their fate. They could file for a divorce or save a marriage. Also, women were given the opportunity to go after men for hard labor. Two were filed for divorce.
The names of eleven women are known today -the companions of the first Russian Decembrist revolutionaries - who followed their men to hard labor in Siberia. They did not belong to secret societies, did not take part in the uprising, but did a heroic deed.
The feat of the wives of the Decembrists not only reflected theirlove and devotion to husbands. The progressive public of that time appreciated their deed, giving it a broad social and political significance. Having voluntarily followed "state criminals", the wives of the Decembrists, like their husbands, spoke out against serfdom and autocracy, not being afraid to lose their blessings and privileges.
It should be noted that Nicholas 1 created all kinds of obstacles for the departure of the wives of the Decembrists. One of the most stringent conditions was the abandonment of children in European Russia.
Ekaterina Trubetskaya was the first to visit her husband. She was detained for six months in Tseydler (local governor), who executed a secret tsarist order and did everything possible to make her come back. Trubetskoy had to sign several obligations, which deprived her of simple human rights. Zeidler said the princess's trip to her husband could take place only at the stage, next to the convicts. However, Ekaterina Trubetskaya was adamant. As a result, she went to her husband.
In early 1827, in Siberia, the NerchinskysAfter the trubetskoy mine, Alexandra Muraveva and Maria Volkonskaya came to the mines. From that moment the first arriving wives of the Decembrists began their social activities. By the end of the year other women came to the mines: Alexandra Yentaltseva, Anna Rosen, Alexandra Davydova, Natalia Fonvizina, Elizaveta Naryshkina, Kamilla Ivasheva, Praskovya Annenkova, Maria Yushnevskaya.
Convicted "state criminals" wereit is forbidden to write letters. Wives of the Decembrists established communication between prisoners and relatives. In the name of women came printed publications, including foreign ones.
Women who came to Siberia lived simply. They had to cook themselves, wash, burn the stove. It was in these conditions that the young aristocrats could understand the whole value of life.
The wife of Nikita Muraviev, Alexander, neglectingdanger, brought and handed Pushkin's works dedicated to Pushchina ("My First Friend", "To Siberia"). If she had found poems during the search, she would be in jail.
Alexandra Muravieva did not live long in Siberia. In the winter, running to the apartment to children from the camera of her husband, she caught a cold and died soon.
The settlement and two more wives died (Trubetskoy andIvasheva). Three women were widowed; they received permission to return after the general pardon of 1856. Two wives went to the Caucasus with their husbands (Naryshkina and Rosen). Three women with the released - returned after an amnesty in the European part of the country (Annenkova, Volkonskaya, Fonvizina).
The Decembrists and their wives returned politically after thirty years of exile. They have carried their hatred of serfdom and autocracy through all these years.